In 1922, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) charged the Marinello Company of Wisconsin, the Marinello Company of Chicago, the Marinello School of Chicago and the School of Cosmeticians with anticompetitive practices under Section 3 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, specifically pointing to the measures the company took to stop price cutting.
The Marinello companies, the Marinello schools and the School of Cosmeticians were closely linked; in one sense they could all be considered to be a part of ‘Marinello’. Francis Chilson – who worked as the company manager of Marinello from 1927 to 1930 after Inecto took control – gives us a summary of the arrangement.
[Marinello’s] products were used in and distributed through more than 5,000 of the largest and most elegant beauty salons in the country. Marinello did not own these salons but controlled them absolutely. Nothing but Marinello products could be used in these salon; no beautician could get a job in any of them unless she had a certificate from a Marinello School of Cosmeticians and this, in turn, was the wholly owned subsidiary of the Marinello Company. It was a closed circuit.
This advantageous closed business circle was set up by the founder of Marinello, Ruth D. Maurer.
Ruth D. Maurer was born in Iowa in 1870 as Ruth Johnson, becoming Ruth Maurer in 1898 when she married the physician and surgeon Dr. Albert Maurer in Kenosha, Wisconsin. After the ceremony she settled in La Crosse, Wisconsin where Dr. Maurer had his medical practice.
Exactly how Ruth Johnson ended up in the beauty business is a bit of a mystery. Published accounts – to which she would have contributed – suggest that her introduction was through writing beauty hints in Chicago newspapers under the name ‘Emily Lloyd’.
Mrs. Maurer first became interested in cosmetics and beauty culture by contributing beauty hints to Chicago papers under the name of “Emily Lloyd.” So numerous were her inquiries regarding creams, lotions etc., that as a natural result she decided to try the manufacture of them according to her own formulas.
Despite claims to the contrary, I have been unable to find a single beauty article written by Emily Lloyd in any Chicago newspaper prior to 1903, the year that ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ was first published – a book widely attributed to her. However, it is possible that Ruth Maurer did work as a newspaper columnist but under another name.
The first edition of ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ states that it is following the ‘Michaud System’. The Michaud name gets dropped in the second edition of the book which then credits Emily Lloyd as the author. Coincidentally, a Mme. Michaud wrote beauty hints for the Chicago ‘Weekly Inter Ocean’ newspaper, covering many topics in a similar way to those dealt with in the books.
If we accept that Mme. Michaud, Emily Lloyd and Ruth Maurer are one and the same person then the considerable body of information in ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ can be seen to have derived from a combination of Maurer’s previous writings on the subject, combined with technical information provided by McIntosh Battery and Optical Company, and advice from other quarters. Athough it seems to have been gathered over a relatively short period of time, Maurer’s knowledge of skin care appears comprehensive – even extending to cosmetic surgery.
How and why Maurer started writing beauty hints in the first place remains an unanswered question. Given her prodigious output of printed material it would seem that she had both an interest in, and talent for, the written word, and may have started out as a journalist. As newspapers of the time were dominated by male correspondents, women were generally regulated to ‘Women’s Interests’ sections, such as social events, fashion and beauty hints, and this may have been reason behind her introduction to Beauty Culture.
The use of a French sounding alias such as Mme. Michaud was a common ploy used by American newspapers to increase a beauty column’s credibility with their readers. It also enabled the newspaper to maintain a column even if the original writer left.
A second unanswered question concerns Maurer’s connection to the McIntosh Battery and Optical Company. It is possible that the company approached the newspaper for a suitable writer and Ruth Maurer was chosen. However, first contact may have been made by Maurer, as in 1901 a patent for a depurator was taken out in her name (Patent No. 680,723), and she may have approached the McIntosh company to make it as they were close by in Chicago.
The first record I have for Emily Lloyd comes with the publication of the second edition of ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ in 1904. The book went through five editions all told – 1903, 1904, 1907, 1910 and 1914 – all of which were published by the McIntosh Battery and Optical Company. All, except the first, were credited to Emily Lloyd.
The book covered a wide variety of topics including: the structure of the skin; the manufacture of skin creams; the use of some cosmetics; how to massage; treatments for skin, hair, nails, feet, hands, teeth and the body; common skin complaints such as blackheads, pimples, freckles and wrinkles; electrical treatments; as well as diet, exercise, weight gain and weight loss and was generally well received by medical journals.
The writer of this somewhat extensive work modestly conceals his name, but the book merits careful reading at the hands of the physician who is pestered by a patient who wants some local treatment for a disfiguring facial blemish, or by individuals who make skin treatment their speciality. In our judgement either a woman has written much of the book or there has been feminine collaboration. It aims at the “open sesame” to beauty, and contains much of interest, even to those of us who believe that we can struggle along without doctoring our faces too much.
As might be expected, electrical machinery, manufactured by the McIntosh Battery and Optical Company, featured heavily in treatments and there was also a McIntosh company advertisement at the back of each edition. The first and subsequent editions also carried an advertisement for the Marinello Company listed at La Crosse, Wisconsin and 57 Washington Street, Chicago. A separate address at Suite 720, the Western Methodist Book Concern Building, situated at 12-24 West Washington Street, Chicago was included in the second edition for anyone wishing to correspond directly with Emily Lloyd.
Why Ruth Maurer invented and maintained Emily Lloyd as an alias is a puzzle. It may have been used to avoid any connection with her husband’s medical practice but there is also the possibility that it may have been to avoid prejudice, given that the Maurer family was Jewish. Perhaps Ruth thought that an anglicised name had a better chance of producing good sales. Whatever the reason, she continued to publish material under her alias well into the 1920s including: ‘The Marinello Text Book’, first published in 1915; ‘The Prismatic Ray (1910), a book on high frequency treatments; the ‘Marinello Messenger’ (1913-1914), an internal news bulletin for Marinello salons; ‘Milady Beautiful’ a commercial magazine, first published in 1913 as the ‘Cometicians Exchange’ which lists Emily Lloyd as its editor; ‘Emily Lloyd’s Note Book’ (1915); ‘Special Lesson’ (1920) published for the National School of Cosmeticians; and assorted newspaper interviews she gave on the subject of beauty treatments. The Marinello Training School was also founded under the name Emily Lloyd.
Following the establishment of the Marinello companies, Ruth Maurer founded the Marinello Training School, later known as the Marinello School of Beauty Culture. The generally accepted opinion is that it was opened in 1905 but the American College and Private School Directory lists it as starting in 1904 (Meyers, 1909, p. 175), so it is possible that classes first began in 1904 but the school was only made a business entity the following year.
Maurer may have based her school on the highly successful Moler schools, founded in Chicago in 1893 by A. B. Moler. Although primarily aimed at barbers, Moler included classes in a number of treatments normally associated with Beauty Culture including facial massage, manicure, chiropody and electrolysis, and he eventually opened Moler Beauty Colleges specifically to train cosmetologists.
Going on a picture of an early class, the Marinello school accepted both male and female students and covered both hairdressing as well as skin treatments. Its credo embraced “Scientific Massage as indicated by the position of the blood vessels and nerves. Use of Batteries and Electric Appliances of all kinds” (Lloyd, 1907).
In the 1907 edition of ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ Emily Lloyd is listed as the Director of the Marinello Training School and I. R. Outerbridge as its Supervisor of Instruction. It is unlikely that Maurer conducted any of the practical classes, as her strengths were more in organisation and publicity, but she could have given occasional talks on the more theoretical sections of the course covered in her books.
Marinello schools followed a medical training model. Students were expected to have a basic knowledge of anatomy and the structure of skin, recognise important skin diseases and conditions, and operate in an environment that followed accepted medical standards of disinfection and sterilisation of equipment.
So, no matter who the person is, whether friend, relative or acquaintance, not for one moment should the vigilance be relaxed, but always the same precautions maintained and just as much effort made to avoid infection as though every person treated was a possible source of danger.
Constant, scrupulous effort will inevitably be rewarded. Hence, it behooves every operator to bear in mind always that the one great, imperative, crying necessity in every branch of her work is the thorough understanding and the practical, every day use of the principles of sterilization.
Although much has changed in the last 100 years – for example, sterilsation has no place in a modern beauty salon – the general training approach taken by Marinello is still used today. However, some of the practices, such as using orpiment (natural arsenic trisulphide) as a depilatory and the ecorchement face peeling treatment would also not be currently condoned.
It seems likely that the early Marinello schools used ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ as a textbook, as this would explain the increased amount of material dealing with running a beauty salon in later editions. However, a lot of material in the book would have been unsuitable for beginning students and a simpler ‘The Marinello Text Book’ was introduced in 1914. It went through five editions (1914, 1915, 1920, 1921, and 1923) and remained the textbook for undergraduate classes in Marinello schools until Maurer lost control of Marinello in 1927.
The publication of ‘The Marinello Text Book’ saw Maurer sever her publishing ties with McIntosh Battery and Optical Company and produce her own books through a printing plant she established at 172 Sixth Avenue South, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Other books published by her included ‘Practical Lessons in Chiropody’, ‘Electricity and how to use it on the Face and Scalp’ and ‘Twenty Lessons in Business Building’ all edited by Elizabeth Curtis Nolan and ‘Emily Lloyd’s Note Book’ on Marcel Waving.
The arrival of the new textbook did not mean that ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ was no longer used in Marinello schools. By 1907, the school was offering both undergraduate and postgraduate courses and postgraduate students may have used this more advanced text.
The third arm of the Marinello empire was the School of Cosmeticians. Begun around 1912 as a gathering of Marinello alumnae (Wynne & Levinger, 1995), by 1920 it had become the National School of Cosmeticians, an accrediting body providing certification for graduates of Marinello schools. This completed the ‘closed circuit’ previously described by Chilson (Chilson, 1972).
Having established the accrediting body, Maurer then campaigned for state governments to pass laws to control the licensing of beauty shops.
Eight states now have laws requiring beauty operators to be qualified by having received a standard of education in their art and to be licensed by the state. Illinois followed the lead of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Oregon, Utah, New Mexico and Wisconsin, in adopting the licensing law proposed by the American Cosmeticians Society and the bill was signed by Governor Small at the close of the Illinois legislative session.
“The law is necessary to maintain the standards of the cosmeticians’ profession,” said Emily Lloyd, beauty expert and head of the National School of Cosmeticians, in an address here. “In most other nations the profession of beauty culture is supported by the aristocracy. In America, millions of women are not only demanding beauty materials on a grand scale but they are hiring an army of beauty specialists to apply them. There are now nearly 30,000 beauty shops in the United States, employing more than 100,000 women.
“Under the new law, beauty operators must each spend 625 hours in an accredited school of beauty culture, or one year of apprenticeship in a shop under the direction of a registered beauty culturist, and are admitted to public practice only after receiving a state license. Licensing of shops and operators will be under a committee which will function under the Department of Registration and Education.”
Although the increased controls on beauty shops and the associated raised standards of training are undoubtedly admirable, we should be in no doubt that it was also advantageous to Marinello in its battle with other beauty training schools offering shorter and cheaper courses. Time clocks were undoubtedly installed to ensure that Marinello students reached the necessary 625 hours of training mandated by many states.
Maurer made a number of references to making up her first batch of creams in a double boiler in the basement of her La Crosse home at 631 State Street. Exactly when this began is hard to say but it may have been as early as 1901. By 1903, she had skin care products for sale but it seems unlikely – given the pressures on her time – that she made them herself and the whole ‘boiler in the basement’ may have just been good advertising copy to accompany the homespun image of early advertisements.
Although Maurer was the driving force behind the business, she had plenty of help from others. As well as the $300 stake she received from her husband to kick start the enterprise, the formulae for the early Marinello products were developed in conjunction with the chemist Carl Runckel, who operated a drug store with his brother Louis at 124 South 5th Avenue, La Crosse, and the company accounts were managed by Harriet Chamberlain (Peterson, 2004).
Exactly when the company was established is confounded by the fact that there were two registered Marinello businesses, one in La Crosse and the other in Chicago. Although both are mentioned in the 1903 edition of ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ the FTC states that the company was founded in 1904 and as I have not seen commercial documents that dispute this date that is the one I will use.
The name for the company was a tribute to Giovanni Marinello, the author of ‘Gli Ornamenti delle Donne’ (The Beautification of the Ladies), an Italian book on female health and beauty, first published in 1562. The frontispiece of the sixteenth-century text was later used in the Marinello ‘Beautistry’ textbooks first published in 1932.
The first Marinello products included Creme Celeste (a type of cold cream), Whitening Cream, Antiseptic Lotion, Lettuce Cream (a cleanser), Acne Cream, Tissue Food, Zinc Ointment, Paste Soap, Finishing Cream and Vegetable Powder. Cosmetics for the hair, hands and nails were added soon afterwards. The recipes for some of these products were included in ‘The Skin. Its Care and Treatment’ and two examples are given below. The use of minim measurements reflects the fact that they were developed by a pharmacist.
Cream Celeste is a very good skin food when made of the finest materials. It is prepared as follows:
Almond oil 8 ℥ Spermaceti 2 ℥ White wax 1 ℥ Honey 1 ℥ Rose water 2 ℥ Borax 3 ℥
Rose geranium oil—sufficient to perfume. The oils may be melted together, and then the honey added and stirred in well. Last of all, the rose water, in which has been dissolved one dram of borax. Enough of the oil of rose geranium to thoroughly perfume the mixture may be used as soon as it is cool.
[T]he Whitening Creme spoken of elsewhere, but has been used with very good results:
Almond oil 6 ℥ Lanolin 1 ℥ Spermaceti 2 ℥ Cocoanut oil 1 ℥ White wax 1 ℥ White precipitate 1 ℥ Oil bitter almonds 1 ℥
Melt the oils together and then add the white precipitate first, mixed with one-half ounce of alcohol. Perfume with oil of bitter almonds.
By 1914, the company had moved to larger premises and was making over 50 preparations including skin creams, skin bleaches, hair dyes, perfumes and toilet waters, hand creams, manicure products, foot creams and decorative cosmetics such as dry, liquid and paste rouge, a stick rouge (possibly a lipstick), eyebrow pencils and face powder.
Whitening Cream, Tissue Builder, Lettuce Brand Cream, Acne Cream, Motor Cream, Wrinkle Paste, Astringent Lotion and Astringent Powder.
Powder and make-up
Face Powder (Shades: White, Cream, Light Pink, Flesh, Deep Pink, Brunette, and Blended), Talcum Powder, Refining Powder, Acacia Balm (Shades: White, Brunette and Flesh), Phantom Cream, Dry Rouge, Liquid Rouge, Stick Rouge and Eye Brow Pencils.
Other skin cosmetics
Antiseptic and Bleaching Lotion, Methine Ointment, Methine Tincture, Depilatory and Perspiration Powder.
Scalp Pomade, Follicle Lotion, Dry Hair Tonic, Oily Hair Tonic, Tar Hair Tonic, Grey Hair Tonic, Hair Restorer, Antiseptic Oil, Water Cosmetique, Jeans Brilliantine, Marcels Brilliantine, Marcels Shampooline and Hair Whitener.
Hand, foot and nail cosmetics
Geranium Jelly, Lily White Cream, Rose Leaf Cream, Nail Bleach, Nail Cream, Nail Polish, Foot Cream and Foot Powder.
Marinello Soap, Tooth Paste, Permanent Sachets (Odours: La Trefle, Lotus, Tea Rose, Oriental, Lily-of-the-Valley, Lavender), and Marinello and Hair Sachets (Perfuming Hair in same odours as permanent sachets. Each odour in three shades for Blonde, Brunette and Grey Hair).
Perfumes and toilet waters
Marinello Girl Perfume, Vic Perfume, Violet de Maurer Perfume, Albertus Rose Perfume, La Crosse Lilac Perfume; Old English Lavender Perfume, Marinello Toilet Waters (in the same odours as Perfumes).
The preparations were sold mainly through Marinello salons but selected items were also available through drug and department stores. Although I have not been able to determine which items were more broadly available and which were only sold through salons, the main products Marinello promoted for wider sale appear to have been its face powders and seven skin creams.
Lettuce Cream: “for cleansing the skin. It cleans more thoroughly than soap and water and without irritation.”
Tissue Cream: “for a rough, dry skin. It builds up the skin and gives it the extra nourishment which it needs.”
Astringent Cream: “for an oily skin. It restrains the too abundant secretion of oil.”
Whitening Cream: “for a sallow skin. Gives your skin that ‘pink and white’ roseleaf quality.”
Acne Cream: “for blemishes and blackheads. This disagreeable condition may be overcome in a short while if you are faithful to the use of this cream.”
Motor Cream: “for skin protection. Neither wind not weather can harm your skin if you fortify it with Motor Cream first.”
Foundation Cream: “before using powder. It makes the powder go on so much more smoothly and stay longer.”
The original powder made by Marinello was Vegetable Powder but by 1920 this had been replaced by Marinello (heavy), Nardys (light) and Marinello Bouquet (medium) powders, each in their own distinctly shaped box – Marinello, octagonal; Nadys, triangular; and Marinello Bouquet, rectangular; an idea that was also used by the Armand company.
The powder comes in Marinello Powder – 60¢ – this is a very excellent powder clinging well and quite heavy. Nardys Powder is a lighter variety and costs 75¢. It pleases many people and is well scented. Marinello Bouquet, neither extremely heavy nor light, price $1.00 is exquisitely scented and is not only popular but very beneficial.
See also: Armand Company
In addition to cosmetics, the company also sold a range of salon appliances including Water Massage and Electrolytic Water Massage units (early vacuum suction devices), Comedone Extractors and Mallets (a type of Patter) as well as straps and bandalettes.
Some of these appliances, such as the mallets and straps were probably also available for sale to the general public through Marinello salons.
The company continued to add products to its range and by the late 1920s its line covered almost every conceivable beauty need.
The Marinello product line was all-embracing. It offered a complete line of hair preparations, eye preparations, manicure preparations; every conceivable kind of creams, pastes, gels, lotions, powders, lipsticks, rouges including cake, paste and cream rouges; skin bleaches; deodorants in every conceivable form; a line of what actually were pharmaceutical ointments; perfumes, toilet waters and colognes, together with a host of accessory products. Many of these products were in the Marinello line before 1920 and many, indeed, were the precursors of products that were considered new and unusual when later introduced by other companies.
I have yet to see anything like a complete list of Marinello products but its depth can be gauged by this list of foot preparations it produced: Griswold Stick, for bunions; Phenolene, an antiseptic; Bucalo, for fissures between the toes; Butrix, for treating inflammation; Medicated Collodion, for callousites, tender surfaces and small wounds; Marinellodrosis, for hyperdrosis and bromodrosis; Foot Tablets, for use in foot baths; Massage Cream, a medicated cream; Foot Powder, to dry the feet; Antiseptic Foot Ointment, for painful and swollen joints; Solvene, a cuticle and corn remover; and Foot Lotion, an antiseptic spray.
Many of the preparations sold by Marinello in its early years would now be considered to be medicinal or patent medicines and reflect the fact that Marinello salon treatments included some procedures that would now be considered best left to the medical profession.
We are fortunate that Maurer left a detailed record of most of the Marinello treatments. Along with a range of scalp and hair treatments (which I will not discuss), Marinello salons also offered an extensive range of skin treatments, some of which, as noted before, bordered on being medical.
When looking through the treatments on offer I am struck by their inclusivity; Marinello salon treatments used anything that was believed to be effective. For example, while some salon chains had arguments over whether facial massage or patting was best practice, Marinello salons used both. In fact, I have yet to find a treatment type used in any beauty salon up to 1927 – the year that Maurer lost control of the company – that could not also be found in the Marinello treatment book.
Another feature of Marinello of treatments was the widespread use of machine aids and electricity. This may have stemmed from the fact that Maurer’s original book was written in conjunction with the McIntosh Battery and Optical Company but it may also reflect an American sensibility. Moler, for example, also included hydro-vacu treatments, electrical facial massage, electrical roller treatments, vibratory facial massage and electrolysis in his barber training manual (Moler, 1905).
Examples of Marinello skin treatments that date from around 1920 include:
Plain Facial: “Her patrons leave, looking and feeling years younger as well as strangely rested, at peace with themselves and the rest of the world, and anxious to return to the same operator for the same type of treatment.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Whitening Cream, Acne Cream, Tissue Cream, Motor Cream, Astringent Cream, Lavender Lotion, Skin Toning Lotion combined with: Iontophoreis.
Rest Facial: “A Scientific Massage Treatment in which the patron is rested, refreshed and decidedly benefited. Especially good for nervous, tired, and prematurely withered or aged skins, as well as for general use.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Lavender Lotion, Combination Cream, Skin Toning Lotion combined with: Iontophoresis.
Muscle Strapping: “Is given to tone, lift and develop the muscles. It is possible to remove all lines with this treatment providing the patron will co-operate and have as many treatments a week as operator may see fit to produce results. Patron should also he advised to use Muscle Strapping Outfit at home which sells for $15.00 and contains every thing necessary for home treatment.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Muscle Oil, Tissue Cream, Witch Hazel, Lavender Lotion combined with: Iontophoresis and High Frequency.
Tired Eye Massage: “The use of the eye cup and finger manipulation in conjunction with the bandalette for tired or inflamed eyes brings great relief.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Witch Hazel, Muscle Oil, Lavender Lotion, Skin Toning Lotion combined with: Eye Cup, Bandalette and Iontophoresis.
Coarse Pore Astringent Treatment: “Frequently the afflictions that cause the most grief are apparently of such innocent origin that little is done to relieve them and as a consequence women suffer for years from oily skins, feeling that nothing can be done to cure this trouble.“ Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Astringent Cream, Whitening Cream, Astringent Lotion, Witch Hazel combined with: Electrolytic Cup, Faradic Muscle Contraction and Patters.
Dry Skin Astringent Treatment: “Complexions of this description need constant care to keep them in good condition, and women who are so afflicted should make up their minds to submit cheerfully to the inevitable in the shape of constant and frequent applications of oils and skin foods in order to keep the skin smooth.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Muscle Oil, Tissue Cream, Astringent Lotion, Foundation Cream combined with: Electrolytic Cup, High Frequency, Light Treatment, Iontophoresis and Patters.
Acne Treatment: “In all Acne cases the good results of the treatments depend upon the care with which the comedones are removed. The work is tedious,but necessary and while the skin should not be bruised by undue pressure, still, unless the pests are removed there will be no improvement – hence the necessity for care and attention.” Preparations: Medicated Soap, Acne Lotion, Acne Cream,Medicated Powder, Stronger Acne Cream combined with: High Frequency.
Methine Treatment: For Acne Rosacea. “In this condition nose, chin and cheeks are often times very red and angry looking and covered with small red papules. When the condition has become chronic the superficial blood vessels wilt be much dilated.” Preparations: Medicated Soap, Lettuce Cream, Methine Tincture, Methine Ointment, Stronger Acne Cream, Astringent Cream, Lavender Lotion, Calmine Lotion, Medicated Powder combined with: Iontophoresis and Light Treatment.
Bleach Mask: For Tan, Freckles, Leukoderma, Chloasma, Oily Skin with large pores, and Acne. “This process will positively bleach the skin from two to five shades without irritation, if care is used in giving the treatment. Occasionally, in very sensitive subjects, a rash will appear the following day, but this soon vanishes, and the skin will be clearer than before.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Bleaching Lotion, Witch Hazel, Tissue Cream, Whitening Cream, Lavender Lotion, Refining Powder combined with: Iontophoresis and Light Treatment.
Milk Beaching treatment: “This treatment is intended for skins too sensitive to stand the other bleaching treatment. It has a refining, softening influence on the skin leaving it as soft as velvet, and can be used on practically every condition.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, combination Cream, Boracic Acid Solution, Witch Hazel, Milk, Astringent powder, Muscle Oil, Skin Toning Lotion.Treatment may also use: Iontophoresis and Light Treatment.
Marinello Wrinkle Mask: “Given for deep and superficial lines. Action lifts tissues underneath lines filling up epithelium.” Preparations: Lettuce Cream, Whitening Cream,Tissue Cream, Combination Cream, Astringent Lotion, Wrinkle Paste, Motor Cream, Foundation Cream, Witch Hazel, Bi-carbonate of Soda combined with: Faradic Muscle Contraction, and Iontophoresis.
In the 1920s the company began to move its base of operations to New York, by then a major centre for Beauty Culture. The company opened an ‘Eastern Office’ at 366 Fifth Avenue, New York while the ’Western Office ’ in Chicago moved to the Mallers Building. In 1925, the company headquarters were moved to 72 Fifth Avenue, New York and manufacturing operations began in New York City. The seven story building included offices, a Marinello school and manufacturing facilities.
1925 marked the high point for the company with Marinello schools operating in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Cincinnati, Minneapolis, Detroit, St Louis, Denver, Los Angeles and Portland Oregon; somewhere between 25,000 and 30,000 Marinello beauticians operating through the United States; and over 8000 beauty shops using Marinello products, with about 6000 of these using Marinello products exclusively (AP&EOR, 1925).
Inecto, Inc. was established in 1919 by Neal R. Andrews to bring the hair dye Inecto Rapid to the United States. Ralph L. Evans [1895-1965] joined the firm in 1923 as its chemist but was soon became a stockholder holding a management position.
The company had a number of links with Marinello. Inecto products, such as Inecto Rapid Notox, were used in Marinello salons and both companies used the same sales company, F. Richie & Co., to distribute their goods. In 1927, Inecto negotiated a deal with Marinello that saw them gain management responsibility for both Marinello Products and the National School of Cosmeticians. Why Ruth Maurer agreed to this arrangement is unknown to me. The cease and desist order issued by the FTC in 1925 may have been a factor but Chilson suggests that money problems were part of the reason.
She [Ruth D. Maurer] was continually surrounded by a noisome collection of sycophants who bled her dry of money and eventually forced her to sell out to the Inecto Company, then the largest hair dye company in this country.
Maurer’s relationship with the new management quickly deteriorated, leading to her resigning from Marinello in 1929 – after a $30,000 buyout (Peterson, 2004) – and from the National School of Cosmeticians.
Despite claims that she was retiring, Ruth Maurer established the Rudemar Products Corporation in 1930. This attempted to replicate the Marinello formula of beauty school, product line and accreditation body but in the grim realities of the 1930s it did not last long, going into receivership in 1933. The Rudemar school and the accrediting body survived and continued on.
The new owners of Marinello set about reorganising their businesses. In 1929, they dispensed with the services of the sales company F. Richie & Co. and developed their own sales force of 12 people organised into a newly established business, Sales Affiliates, Inc. The following year they founded Andrevan, Inc. in New York – the stock of which was wholly owned by Neal R. Andrews and Ralph L. Evans – then used that company to acquired the stock of the other three corporations; Sales Affiliates, Inc., Inecto, Inc., and the Marinello Company.
In 1932, Andrevan changed its businesses processes after the Revenue Act (1932) raised U.S. corporate tax rate by almost 15 per cent. Inecto and Marinello began selling their products directly to Sales Affiliates, Inc., at a new low price which then sold it to the trade at the old higher price. Then relationships between the various businesses were altered in 1933 with Inecto becoming responsible for all manufacturing, while Marinello was reduced to a bottling and packaging operation. However, as all the businesses now operated out of the same New York building at 33 West Forty-Sixth Street – incidentally owned by the Notox Realty Corporation, another wholly owned subsidiary of Andrevan – operations were largely unaffected by the paper shuffling.
The Marinello schools continued. The organisation of the textbook and curriculum was passed to Florence E. Wall [1893-1988] an Inecto employee who had been working as a technical advisor before developing Inecto’s training school – the Notox Institute of Canities – and the accompanying textbook – ‘Canitics. The treatment of canities reduced to a science and elevated to an art’ – in 1926. Although Wall left in 1928 she contributed to a range of new Marinello courses introduced in that year and was largely responsible for the production of the first edition of ‘The Science of Beautistry’, the new textbook for the National School of Cosmeticians, even though it was not published until 1932. Wall retained her interest in Beauty Culture after she left Marinello and went on to become a leading educator in the field with a number of books to her credit.
There were other positive developments after 1927. The new owners repackaged the line in 1929, using attractive soft pink glass jars topped by silver lids, with a Deco inspired head in profile on the label; all in all a considerable improvement. The Marinello line was also established in Europe but the agencies there do not appear to have survived the Second World War.
Although Sales Affiliates continued to promote Marinello products it seems that as the hair care side of the business became more profitable, interest in the cosmetics side of their operation declined. The introduction of Zotos machineless permanent waving pads in 1932 created a good deal of salon business during the depression years. They must have been the saviour of many small town salons in the depression when customers could get cosmetics through cut price stores and follow their own skin care regimes at home. Salon operators could charge $15 dollars for a permanent wave, a considerable sum of money for the time. Demand for Zotos salon permanents remained high following the development of thioglycolic acid cold waves in 1939, for which Sales Affiliates held patents, only becoming threatened by the introduction of Toni home permanents and similar products after the Second World War.
Although the Marinello products continued to be supported – with the line being rebranded after the Second World War – use of its products declined and the brand eventually disappeared, a fate shared by a number of other cosmetic companies as well. However, not all traces of Marinello have disappeared as the Marinello Schools remain in operation in the United States. Zotos International continues as a part of Shiseido Co. Ltd.
|1903||First edition of ‘The Skin: Its Care and Treatment’ published.|
|1904||The Marinello Company formed.|
|1905||Marinello Training School founded.|
|1912||Marinello factory moves to 209 Fifth Avenue South, La Cross, Wisconsin.|
|1915||First edition of ‘The Marinello Text Book: Teaching the Care of the Face, Scalp, Hair and Hands’ published.|
|1918||Marinello charged under the Clayton Anti-trust Act.|
|1919||Marinello factory moves to 225 South Sixth Street, La Cross, Wisconsin.|
|n.d.||Marinello Eastern Office opens at 366 Fifth Avenue New York. Western Office moves to Mallers Building, Chicago.|
|1925||Marinello headquarters moved to 72 Fifth Avenue New York and begins manufacturing operations in NYC.|
|1927||Inecto, Inc. acquires the Marinello Company and the National School of Cosmeticians.|
|1928||Marinello starts a new operators course, a Marcel finishing course and 15 special subject courses.|
|1929||Sales Affiliates, Inc. established to sell the products of Marinello and Inecto, Inc. They were previously selling their products through F. Richie & Co.|
Ruth D. Maurer resigns from Marinello.
|1930||Andrevan, Inc. owned by Neal R. Andrews and Ralph L. Evans, acquires the stock of Sales Affiliates, Inc., Inecto, Inc., and the Marinello Company.|
|1931||First edition of ‘The Ruth D. Maurer Handbook of Beauty Culture’ published.|
Marinello Products established in France.
|1932||A new method of operation was adopted. Inecto, Inc., and Marinello Company sold their entire output to Sales Affiliates, Inc.|
First edition of ‘The Science of Beautistry’ published.
|1933||Inecto acquires all the manufacturing equipment and business of Marinello, and Marinello acquired all the packaging business of Inecto. Marinello became a bottling and packaging company only.|
Factories of Marinello and its affiliates Inecto and Zotos Corporation move to Hoboken N.J. Executive offices and laboratory transferred to 33 West 46th Street where the offices of Inecto and Zotos have been for some time.
|1938||Royal Academy of Cosmeticians begins teaching the Marinello System.|
|1944||Marinello line repackaged in aqua with a pink satin bow.|
|1963||Marinello Schools purchased by Scope Industries with headquarters located in Los Angeles.|
|1982||Zotos purchased by Conair Corporation from R. L. Evans, Jr.|
|1988||Zotos International purchased by Shiseido Co. Ltd from Conair Corporation.|
|2004||Marinello Schools are under the ownership of B&H Education, Inc. located in Beverly Hills, CA.|
Updated: 10th June 2015
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