In the 1890s science discovered that the skin had an acidic surface. Then, in 1928, Schade and Marchionini suggested that the function of the low pH film was to protect the skin from microbes and coined the term ‘acid mantle’ to describe it. Even though they did not explain how the acid mantle achieved its protective effect, their idea was largely accepted and repeated throughout the scientific literature of the day.
Many soaps and detergents of the time were quite alkaline in nature, and their harmful effects on the skin were well known by consumers and dermatologists alike; so the concept of the acid mantle went some way to explain why this was the case. You might think that cosmetic companies would jump on this fact and use it to persuade consumers to exchange soap for a skin cleanser but this does not appear to have been the case. One possible reason for this is that many cosmetic companies were also in the soap business, with some of them also using soap in their cleansing routines. In addition, most cosmetic houses were also fighting a cleansing war on two fronts. As well as suggesting that consumers use cleansers rather than soap, they were also trying to wean them off cleansing with cold cream. To do this they needed to convince their customers that a specialist cleanser provided a better solution than either product.
The Helena Rubinstein scientific washing preparations accomplish what could never be done by creams or soap alone! They not only cleanse deeply—they impart an animated, transparent look to the skin.
Rather than take a negative approach, beauty firms concentrated on the more positive ‘soothing’, ‘feeding’, ‘beautifying’ and ‘nourishing’ aspects of their products, thus avoiding unpleasant subjects like acids and microbes.
Alkalinity and acidity only get mentioned in advertisements for cosmetic products where the pH could be considered to be a potential problem, namely in soaps and shampoos; however, this marketing trend did not begin to appear until later in the twentieth century. It was not that cosmetic companies were unaware of the presence of the acid mantle or the harmful effects of alkaline materials on the skin, it’s just that most did not consider it to be a good selling point. Even so, many thought it prudent to keep the pH of their products as close to that of the skin or as neutral as possible.
In regard to negative advertising, one soap company was not so squeamish. Despite protests from cosmetic houses, Lever Brothers took to describing the dangers of acquiring ‘Cosmetic Skin’ in their advertisements for Lux Toilet Soap; the cure for which was Lux soap and water; apparently, “[r]omance comes to the girl who guards against Cosmetic Skin”. Lever Brothers ran this marketing line in their Lux advertising for a few years in the 1930s using a range of stage and screen stars as support.
See also: Cosmetic Skin
Although it was ignored in advertising by most cosmetic companies, some did use the concept of acidity as a marketing tool. Two different approaches were tried, neither of which was particularly successful.
The first approach was to suggest that an acid skin needed treatment. In the 1920s, Princess Pat expressed concern about an acidic ‘pore film’ created by a build up of fatty acid.
Acid skin must be overcome
When perspiration and the oil from the sebaceous glands intermingle and decompose, there is formed upon the skin a fatty acid which is highly favourable to the formation of blackheads, whiteheads pimples and other skin blemishes. To the extent that the glands of the skin are enfeebled and unhealthy, this fatty acid becomes Increasingly a source of trouble. It lingers on the skin mouths and together with accumulations of dust, dirt and germs from the air exerts a most disastrous effect.
In the 1930s, Philips tried something similar by advocating the use of creams containing Milk of Magnesia (emulsified magnesium hydroxide) to neutralise any skin acid (deNavarre, 1941, p. 133). The company was ordered to stop using the term acid skin by the American Federal Trade commission (FTC) in 1941, on the grounds that the term did not describe any known skin disease or pathological condition.
Lili Christine Cosmetics went one step further and added a pH indicator to their Acid Removal Cream. The pH of the cream was neutral (green) but it would turn pink when it came in contact with the acid mantle of the skin.
The Acid Removal Cream—the name gives its purpose—reacts like a litmus paper. In the jar it’s green, but if your skin is slightly acid when you apply it, it turns to an ivory shade; and if there is a lot of acid, it turns pink!
The second approach was to support the acid mantle by manufacturing and marketing acid creams. These products had some technical problems that needed to be overcome. The presence of a mild acid meant that soap could not be used as the emulsifying agent, as the acid would decompose the soap, so alternatives had to be used. Two suggested formulas for acid creams are given below:
Acid Cream 2 % Sodium cetyl sulfate 4.0 Cetyl alcohol 8.0 Ozokerite, bleached 2.5 Mineral oil 12.0 Diethylene glycol 5.0 Lemon perfume compound (for creams) 0.5 Glycerophosphoric acid 2.5 Distilled water 65.5
Formula 27 % Wool wax 3.0 Lanolin, anhydrous 8.0 Stearyl alcohol 2.0 Petrolatum 37.0 Glycerol 4.0 Lactic acid 1.5 Water 44.5
Procedure: Melt the wool wax, lanolin, stearyl alcohol, and petrolatum and bring to a temperature of 55°C. Add glycerol and lactic acid to the water and heat to 57°C. Add the water solution to the fats with good agitation. When all the water has been added, continue stirring until the temperature has dropped to 45 to 50°C., and then add the perfume. Pass the cream through a colloid mill (Eppenbach type).
There were also marketing difficulties in selling these creams. Consumers generally did not like the idea of putting acid on their skin. This is still true today with many acidic products, like shampoos, still being referred to as non-alkaline rather than acidic. For this reason acid creams were sometimes marketed as ‘lemon creams’ which meant that the formula had to contain citric acid or be perfumed with oil of lemon to avoid problems with regulatory authorities.
Acid creams never really caught on with the public and are restricted today to quasi-medical creams for individuals with specific skin conditions. Meanwhile, many manufacturers of soaps and shampoos had learnt their lesson and began advertising their products as ‘alkali-free’ or ‘non-alkaline’.
Acidic cosmetics ‘time in the sun’ had to wait until the end of the twentieth century, when alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) began to be added to cosmetic products. Marketed as ‘fruit acids’ these were generally milder versions of a type of chemical peel employed by dermatologists and plastic surgeons to remove the signs of skin roughness, ageing and pigmentation. Like many other beauty products, they moved from the medical profession to the salon and then to general distribution over the counter. In their heyday they penetrated all aspects of the skin-care market including cleansers, moisturisers and masks.
Typically AHAs, such as glycolic, malic, citric and lactic acids, made up less than 10% of the formulation. This was not always the case and products with much higher percentages were made up for use in salons with some establishments making up solutions on the spot. The pH of the products also varied but it was generally agreed that commercial products should not get down below a pH of 3.0 (Winter, 2005, p. 61). I doubt that all salons stuck to this limit when making up their own solutions.
Being acidic, these products – and the BHAs (beta-hydroxy-acids) that followed them – could be dangerous if a formulation with a very low pH was left on the skin for too long. The discomfort that could occur when undergoing some fruit-acid treatments was a measure of how far consumers would go to get younger-looking skin. Fortunately, as with alkaline soaps, as long as the exposure was short and the skin was not damaged, natural body processes returned the skin’s pH to normal levels soon afterwards and the acid mantle was restored.
Updated: 17th August 2017
deNavarre, M. G. (1941). The chemistry and manufacture of cosmetics. Boston: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Poucher, W. A. (1932). Perfumes, cosmetics and soaps, Vols. 1-2 (4th ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.
Princess Pat. (1923). The promise of a princess [Booklet]. Chicago, IL: Author.
Sagarin, E. (Ed.). (1957). Cosmetics: Science and technology. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc.
Thomssen, B. S. (1947). Modern cosmetics (3rd ed.). New York: Drug & Cosmetic Industry.
Wilkinson J. B., & Moore, R. J. (Eds.). (1982). Harry’s cosmetology (7th ed.). New York: Chemical Publishing.
Winter R. (2005). A Consumers dictionary of cosmetic ingredients (6th. ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press.